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Novaya Zemla, Tsar Bomba Detonation, Rapid Arctic Warming ?

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The Soviet RDS-220 hydrogen bomb (code name Ivan[3] or Vanya), known by Western nations as Tsar Bomba (Russian: Царь-бо́мба, tr. Tsar’-bómba, IPA: [t͡sarʲ ˈbombə], lit. Tsar bomb), was the most powerful nuclear weapon ever created. Tested on 30 October 1961 as an experimental verification of calculation principles and multi-stage thermonuclear weapon designs, it also remains the most powerful explosive ever detonated. It was also referred to as Kuzma’s mother (Russian: Ку́зькина ма́ть, tr. Kúz’kina mát’, IPA: [ˈkusʲkʲɪnə ˈmatʲ]),[4] possibly referring to First secretary Nikita Khrushchev‘s promise to “show the United States a Kuzma’s mother” (an idiom roughly translating to “We’ll show you”) at a 1960 session of the United Nations General Assembly.[5][6]

The bomb was detonated in secret but was detected by US Intelligence agencies. The US apparently had an instrumented KC-135R (Operation SpeedLight[7]) in the area of the test, close enough to have been scorched by the blast. [8][2] The bhangmeter results and other data suggested the bomb yielded about 58 megatons of TNT [Mt] (240 PJ),[9] and that was the accepted yield in the literature until the Soviet scientists revealed that their instruments indicated a yield of 50 Mt (210 PJ) in 1991.[2] As they had the instrumental data and access to the test site, their yield figure has been accepted as more correct.[8][2]

In theory, the bomb would have had a yield in excess of 100 Mt (420 PJ) if it had included a uranium-238 tamper, but because only one bomb was built, that capability has never been demonstrated. The single bomb was detonated at the Sukhoy Nos (“Dry Nose”) cape of Severny Island, Novaya Zemlya, 15 km (9.3 mi) from Mityushikha Bay, north of Matochkin Strait.[10][11][12]

The remaining bomb casings are located at the Russian Atomic Weapon Museum in Sarov and the Museum of Nuclear Weapons, All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, at Snezhinsk.

Name

Many codenames are attributed to the Tsar Bomba: Project 7000; product code 202 (Izdeliye 202), “Product V” (izdeliye V); article designations RDS-220 (РДС-220), RDS-202 (РДС-202), RN202 (PH202, incorrect codename as the AN602 is a modification of the RN202), AN602 (AH602); codename Vanya; nicknames Big Ivan, Kuzkina mat.[13][14] The name “Tsar Bomba” was coined in an analogy with other massive Russian objects: the Tsar Bell and Tsar Cannon.[13] The CIA designated the test as “JOE 111”.[12]

Genesis

In addition to being created for political, propagandistic use and as a response to the nuclear deterrence capabilities then possessed by the United States, the Tsar Bomba was created as part of the strategic nuclear forces concept of the USSR, adopted during the rule of Georgy Malenkov and Nikita Khrushchev, to achieve—without pursuing a quantitative parity with the US in terms of nuclear weapons and means of delivery—sufficient “guaranteed retaliation with an unacceptable level of damage to the enemy” in the event of a nuclear strike on the USSR via qualitatively superior nuclear power.

The “Malenkov-Khrushchev nuclear doctrine” involved the adoption of geopolitical and military challenges to the United States and the participation of the USSR in the nuclear race, but “in a distinctly asymmetrical style”. The technical manifestation of this undocumented doctrine was the research-and-development of nuclear weapons and their means of delivery, the former large enough to completely (or nearly) wipe out large cities and entire urbanized regions in one strike (i.e. with a single payload and a single aircraft). An example of this would be the creation of the N-1 orbital combat rocket (GRAU index 11A52) per the Resolution of the Council of Ministers issued on 23 June 1960. With a starting weight of 2200 tons and a nuclear warhead weighing 75 tons, its estimated nuclear yield (though unknown exactly) could surpass that of a 150-ton-yield 40-ton warhead delivered by a UR-500 missile.

However the development of such weapons also required mandatory and practical aerial bombardment methods, as for a high-yield (thermo-)nuclear explosion to reach maximal effect, the payload has to be detonated at an optimal height for the shock wave to reach the greatest force and range of propagations. In addition, ultra-large-yield thermonuclear bombs were considered by the Long Range Aviation units of the USSR, as their use fits the “cause the greatest damage to the enemy with a minimal number of carriers (i.e. bombers)” doctrine, while it was also necessary to consider the practical feasibility of such heavy thermonuclear weapons with reliably predictable characteristics. Before this, however, a massive underwater “doomsday weapon” considered by Soviet military and technical experts—essentially a giant torpedo launched by a dedicated nuclear submarine—was planned for development, which would detonate its nuclear warhead near the US coast, causing a massive tsunami. However, this project (known as the T-15 torpedo) was soon abandoned as its actual combat effectiveness was questionable after more detailed consideration.

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Discoveries could be ‘missing link’ to understanding Native American ancestry

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Two 31,000-year-old milk teeth have led to the discovery of an ancient group of people who once lived in northern Siberia — and, along with a 10,000-year-old skull, could offer a better understanding of who the ancestors of Native Americans were, scientists say.

In a study published in the journal Nature, an international team of evolutionary geneticists revealed the existence of a hardy, mobile group of hunters they termed the Ancient North Siberians. This group was not made up of direct ancestors of Native Americans, as the scientists initially anticipated.
They identified the lost group of people from DNA extracted from two tiny teeth belonging to two unrelated boys, found near the Yana River in Russia.
“These people were a significant part of human history,” study leader Eske Willerslev, a professor at the University of Cambridge and director of the University of Copenhagen’s Lundbeck Foundation Centre for GeoGenetics, said in a press release.

A Neurosurgeon’s Journey through the Afterlife

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How Native Americans Dodged Annihilation and Flourished

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Together the U.S. Army and paternalistic government policies all but wiped out the country’s indigenous culture. But Native Americans never stopped fighting back.

The destruction of Indian peoples’ power via military and diplomatic means was a continuous project of European Americans from the very beginning of settlement in the 1620s until the surrender of Geronimo’s Apaches in 1886. Four years after the Apaches put down their guns, at a place called Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota, the U.S. Army massacred some 300 Sioux followers of the Ghost Dance—a potent religious awakening among the Great Plains Indians that provoked great fear among the authorities, for it predicted the disappearance of all the whites, and the return of the traditional Indian world, including the buffalo herds and Native ancestors who’d died resisting the invasion of Euro-Americans.

Wounded Knee serves as a kind of grim coda to one of the sorriest chapters in American history.

Read More By James A. Warren at the DAILY BEAST

Spring Planting PowWow

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Marshfield powwow celebrates Native American culture

 

Native Americans and Rural Americans Join to Defend Environment

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Native American and non-Native communities have joined forces across the country to form what could be the base of a new environmental movement.

 

Fish-Hawk and His Daughter , An Achomawi Legend

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Fish-Hawk lived down at Pit River. When Sun traveled in winter, he left his daughter at home, but he carried her about with him in summer. Sun did not want his daughter to marry any poor person, but a great man, like Pine-Marten, Wolf, or Coyote. Fish-Hawk got angry at Sun because he talked in this way of poor people, so he started and went down to the ocean, to Sun’s place, and slipped into the sweat-house. It was winter now, and Sun’s daughter was put away inside the house in a basket. Fish-Hawk stole her, carried her on his back to Coyote’s house, and hid her away. He made the journey in one night.

Next morning Sun could not find his daughter, and did not know where she had gone. That morning Fish-Hawk took the basket with the woman in it, and put it away under the rocks in muddy water, to hide it so that Sun could not see and could not find his daughter.

Sun searched everywhere in the air and on the ground, but could not find her. Then he hired all men who were good divers or swimmers to hunt in the water, for he thought she was hidden in the water. All searched until they came to Pit River. One would search part of the way, then another. Kingfisher was the last man to go in search of her. He went along slowly to look where the water was muddy. At last he thought he saw just a bit of something under the water. Then he went over the place carefully again and again.

Many people were going along the river, watching these men looking for Sun’s daughter. Kingfisher filled his pipe, smoked, and blew on the water to make it clear, for he was a great shaman. Then he went up in the air and came down over the place. The people were all excited, and thought surely he would find something. He came along slowly, and sat and smoked again, and blew the smoke over the water. Then he rose, rolled up his pipe and tobacco, and put them away. Then he took a long pole, stood over the water, pushed his pole down deep, and speared with it until he got hold of the basket and pulled it out. Old Sun came, untied the basket, took his daughter out, washed her, then put her back. He paid each of the men he had hired. Part of their pay was in shells.

Kingfisher said that it was Fish-Hawk who had hidden the basket. Sun put the basket on his back and started home. He was so happy to get his daughter back that he did no harm to Fish-Hawk for stealing her.

 

Only When The Last Tree Has Died …

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Abenaki Emergence Myth

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ABENAKI EMERGENCE MYTH
An Abenaki Legend


Note: The character Kloskurbeh is identified with Glooscap of the Algonquin myths. The Abenaki, or Wabanaki, are an Algonquin people of Maine and New Brunswick.

First Manitou, the Great Spirit, made Kloskurbeh, the great teacher. One day when the sun was directly overhead, a young boy appeared to Kloskurbeh. He explained that he had been born when the sea had churned up a great foam, which was then heated by the sun, congealed, and came alive as a human boy.

The next day, again at noon, the teacher and the boy greeted a girl. She explained that she had come from the earth, which had produced a green plant which bore her as fruit. And so Kloskurbeh, the wise teacher, knew that human beings came forth from the union of sea and land. The teacher gave thanks to Manitou and instructed the boy and girl in everything they needed to know. Then Kloskurbeh went north into the forest to meditate.

The man and the woman had many, many children. Unfortunately, they had so many children that they were unable to feed them all by hunting and picking wild foods. The mother was filled with grief to see her children hungry, and the father despaired. One day the mother went down to a stream, entering it sadly. As she reached the middle of the stream, her mood changed completely and she was filled with joy. A long green shoot had come out of her body, between her legs. As the mother left the stream, she once again looked unhappy.

Later, the father asked her what had happened during the day while he was out trying to gather food. The mother told the whole story. She then instructed the father to kill her and plant her bones in two piles. The father, understandably, was upset by this command and he questioned the mother many times about it. Naturally, it was shocking and disturbing to think that he had to kill his wife in order to save his children: But she was insistent. The father immediately went to Kloskurbeh for advice. Kloskurbeh thought the story very strange, but then he prayed to Manitou for guidance. Kloskurbeh then told the father that the mother was right; this was the will of Manitou. So, the father killed his wife and buried her bones in two piles as he was commanded to do.

For seven moons, the father stood over the piles of bones and wept. Then one morning, he noticed that from one pile had sprouted tobacco and, from the other, maize. Kloskurbeh explained to the man that his wife had really never died, but that she would live forever in these two crops.

To this day, a mother would rather die than see her children starve, and all children are still fed today by that original mother. Men like to plant in the cornfields extra fish they catch as a gift of thanks to the first mother and a remembrance that we are all children of the union of sea and land

Mother Earth ~ The Only Home Animals and Humans Have

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Courtesy Of Arthur Poletti

SAY GOODBYE TO ALL FACTORY FARMS AND SLAUGHTERHOUSES IN THE UNITED STATES FOREVER!!

BECAUSE ‘FOR SURE’ VEGANISM HAS PASSED THE TIPPING POINT IN THE UNITED STATES!!

That Magical Moment When An Idea, Trend, Or Social Behavior Crosses A Threshold, Tips, And Spreads Rapidly!

Dairy Farms Have Been Closing For Over 10 Years In The United States And The Remainder Will Face Certain Closure Soon,

As Dairy Products Continue To Be Rapidly Removed From The Food Chain. Continuously Being Replaced By A Variety Of Delicious Much Healthier Vegan Options!

AND NO ANIMALS HAVE TO SUFFER AND DIE!

Realistically, Because Of The Certain To Happen, COMPLETE COLLAPSE OF THE DAIRY INDUSTRY!!

It Is Very Possible THAT THE LAST DAIRY FARM IN THE UNITED STATES Could Close As Soon As The End Of 2020 Or Soon After!!

Followed By What Could Easily Be:The Final And Complete Collapse And Closure Of All Slaughterhouses In The United States By The End Of 2022 Or Sooner!!

Which Will Be Remembered As The Most Important Life Saving Movement In History!!

FOR MANY OTHER COUNTRIES TO SERIOUSLY CONSIDER AND HOPEFULLY EMULATE.

For The Benefit Of Billions Of Animals, Billions Of Humans, And The Prospects And Much Needed Result Of Improving The Health And Welfare Of The Earth!!

THE ONLY HOME ALL HUMANS AND ANIMALS HAVE!!

Princess Angelina

The Cutest Pit Bull in the World needs Your Help to Save Other Dogs.

Our Compass

Because compassion directs us ...

BlueFeatherSpirit

"Only after the last tree has been cut down, only after the last river has been poisoned, Only after the last fish has been caught, only then will you find that money can not be eaten."