GERONIMO, The Last Free Apache





Geronimo is said to have had magical powers. He could see into the future, walk without creating footprints and even hold off the dawn to protect his own. This Apache Indian warrior and his band of 37 followers defied federal authority for more than 25 years.

Geronimo {jur-ahn’-i-moh}, or Goyathlay (“one who yawns”), was born in 1829 in what is today western New Mexico, but was then still Mexican territory. He was a Bedonkohe Apache (grandson of Mahko) by birth and a Net’na during his youth and early manhood. His wife, Juh, Geronimo’s cousin Ishton, and Asa Daklugie were members of the Nednhi band of the Chiricahua Apache.

He was reportedly given the name Geronimo by Mexican soldiers, although few agree as to why. As leader of the Apaches at Arispe in Sonora, he performed such daring feats that the Mexicans singled him out with the sobriquet Geronimo (Spanish for “Jerome”). Some attributed his numerous raiding successes to powers conferred by supernatural beings, including a reputed invulnerability to bullets.

Geronimo’s war career was linked with that of his brother-in-law, Juh, a Chiricahua chief. Although he was not a hereditary leader, Geronimo appeared so to outsiders because he often acted as spokesman for Juh, who had a speech impediment.

Geronimo was the leader of the last American Indian fighting force formally to capitulate to the United States. Because he fought against such daunting odds and held out the longest, he became the most famous Apache of all. To the pioneers and settlers of Arizona and New Mexico, he was a bloody-handed murderer and this image endured until the second half of this century.

To the Apaches, Geronimo embodied the very essence of the Apache values, agressiveness, courage in the face of difficulty. These qualities inspired fear in the settlers of Arizona and New Mexico. The Chiricahuas were mostly migratory following the seasons, hunting and farming. When food was scarce, it was the custom to raid neighboring tribes. Raids and vengeance were an honorable way of life among the tribes of this region.

By the time American settlers began arriving in the area, the Spanish had become entrenched in the area. They were always looking for Indian slaves and Christian converts. One of the most pivotal moments in Geronimo’s life was in 1858 when he returned home from a trading excursion into Mexico. He found his wife, his mother and his three young children murdered by Spanish troops from Mexico. This reportedly caused him to have such a hatred of the whites that he vowed to kill as many as he could. From that day on he took every opportunity he could to terrorize Mexican settlements and soon after this incident he received his power, which came to him in visions. Geronimo was never a chief, but a medicine man, a seer and a spiritual and intellectual leader both in and out of battle. The Apache chiefs depended on his wisdom.

When the Chiricahua were forcibly removed (1876) to arid land at San Carlos, in eastern Arizona, Geronimo fled with a band of followers into Mexico. He was soon arrested and returned to the new reservation. For the remainder of the 1870s, he and Juh led a quiet life on the reservation, but with the slaying of an Apache prophet in 1881, they returned to full-time activities from a secret camp in the Sierra Madre Mountains.

Read the rest of this entry




The Indian war horse was highly regarded by its American Indian owner, who often honored and protected his war horse by painting tribal symbols upon the animal’s body.

While the symbols used and their meanings varied from tribe to tribe, there were some common symbols that were widely used on the Indian war horse.

Each power symbol has its own specific meaning and the purpose for which it was used was determined by the nature of the dangerous job which the war horse would be asked to do.

The Indian would decorate his horse with carefully chosen war symbols or power symbols which might be intended to give him protection, to indicate the troubles which lay ahead, or which spoke of the courageous heart of the war horse. Some symbols told of the horse’s affection for the warrior. In this article, you will find explanations of some symbols which Indians used to decorate their war horses.

Read the rest of this entry


Native American Ten Commandments

The Earth is our Mother care for her.

Honor all your relations.

Open your heart and soul to the Great Spirit.

All life is sacred, treat all beings with respect.

Take from the Earth what is needed and nothing more.

Do what needs to be done for the good of all.

Give constant thanks to the Great Spirit for each new day.

Speak the truth, but only of the good in others.

Follow the rhythms of the nature, rise and retire with the sun.

Enjoy lifes journey but leave no tracks.


Read the rest of this entry

Native American Veterans




Native American Veterans: 5 Facts You May Not Know

Despite an often-troubled relationship with the government of the United States, Native American warriors have played an important role in the military history of the nation, with service stretching back as far as the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, years before Native Americans would be recognized as US citizens. Statistics show that they have volunteered and served in higher percentages than any other ethnicity, and their special skills and warrior culture have resulted in pivotal benefits and victories for the US Armed Forces, along with a long list of honors and medals.

Here are five facts about Native American veterans that you may not know.

There will be a new National Monument to honor them, opening on Veterans Day, 2020.

The Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian plans on honoring American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian servicemen and women with a prominent memorial on the National Mall, a place that draws nearly 24 million visitors annually to Washington, D.C. The new National Native American Veterans Memorial will be located on the grounds of the museum, between the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum and the U.S. Capitol. The museum is working with Native American veterans, tribal leaders, historians, members of Congress, and cultural experts to complete the memorial, which will be accompanied by a mobile educational exhibition that will travel through the U.S. in the years leading up to the memorial’s opening. An extensive, multi-day dedication ceremony is planned to dedicate the memorial in 2020, including a procession of Native American veterans on the National Mall. Congress has determined that the memorial must be designed and constructed without the use of federal funds, so the team working on the memorial is currently seeking donations from civilians, veterans, and corporations.

A higher percentage of Native Americans served post-9/11 than any other ethnicity.

After 9/11, almost 19% of Native Americans served in the Armed Forces, compared to 14% of other ethnicities. Currently, there are more than 31,000 American Indian and Alaska Native men and women are on active duty today, serving in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere around the world. An estimated 12,000 Native Americans served in WWI (despite not being  recognized American Citizens), 44,000 Native Americans served in World War II (when the entire population of Native Americans was less than 350,000 at the time), and 42,000 Native Americans served in the Vietnam War (90% of them volunteers). Today, there are an estimated 140,000 Native American veterans living, many of whom are Purple Heart recipients, Bronze Star medal honorees, and even Congressional Medal of Honor recipients, the highest military award of the United States.

Native American have played an important role from the birth of the United States.

More details are emerging showing the importance of female Native American veterans in US military history, reaching as far back as the American Revolution. Historians have only recently rediscovered and verified the actions of an Oneida woman, Tyonajanegen, at the battle of Oriskany during the American Revolution (1775-1783). Tyonajanegen was married to an American Army officer of Dutch descent and fought at her husband’s side on horseback during the battle, relodading his gun for him after he was shot in the wrist. During WWI, 14 Native American women served in the Army Nurse Corps, with two of them serving overseas.  Throughout WWII, nearly 800 Native American women served with units like the Army Corps, the Army Nurse Corps, and the WAVES. Today 11.5% of living Native American veterans are female, compared to 8% of other ethnicities. The Women In Military Service For America Memorial in Arlington is working to encourage Native American female veterans to register (800-222-2294 or 703-533-1155) and add their stories to those they are collecting of the honorable service of Native American Women.

The VA supports programs specific to Native American veterans.

According to the Department of Defense, American Indians, and Alaska Natives have one of the highest representations in the armed forces. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA )consults with American Indian and Alaska Native tribal governments to develop partnerships that enhance access to services and benefits for veterans and their families. In addition to the regular benefits available to all U.S. veterans, Native American veterans may be eligible for the Native American Direct Loan (NADL) Program that helps finance the purchase, construction, or improvement of homes on Federal Trust Land or reduce the interest rate on a VA loan. Additionally the VA Office of Tribal Government Relations (OTGR) consults with American Indian and Alaska Native tribal governments to develop partnerships that help educate and train Tribal leaders and Veteran Service Organizations to increase access and enhance VA healthcare, services, and benefits for Native American veterans and their families.

More than 30 other tribes served as Code Talkers, in addition to the Navajo Tribe.

Despite not becoming US citizens until June 2, 1924, the first reported use of Native Americans as code talkers was on October 17, 1918 during World War I, nearly 24 years after the Battle of the Little Big Horn. In 2000, Navajo Code Talkers were honored with Congressional Gold Medals for their services in developing and implementing their traditional Dine’ language as a secret code of communication on the battlefields in both WWI and WWII. Their story was later told in the award-winning feature film, Windtalkers. However, many Americans do not know that members of nearly 32 other Indian tribes served as codetalkers in World War I and World War II and have never been formally recognized for their service to the country. Tribes serving as codetalkers during both the Pacific and European campaigns included Comanche, Cheyenne, Cherokee, Osage, Lakota, Dakota, Chippewa, Oneida, Sac and Fox, Meskwaki, Hopi, Assiniboine, Kiowa, Pawnee, Akwesasne, Menominee, Creek, Cree Seminole Tribes and other unlisted tribes. In World War II, additional tribes aided in the code talker efforts, including Oglala Sioux Tribe, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, Lower Brule Sioux Tribe, Crow Creek Sioux Tribe, Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe, and Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe.



Courtesy of VETERAN AID

Red Cloud(Makhpiya-luta) We Do Not Want Riches




I am poor and naked, but I am the chief of the nation. We do not want riches but we do want to train our children right. Riches would do us no good. We could not take them with us to the other world. We do not want riches. We want peace and love. – Red Cloud(Makhpiya-luta)






Guarani People of Brazil, Guardians of Nature




As the Guarani people of Matto Grosso do Sul, in Brazil, said recently:

“If indigenous peoples become extinct and dead, the lives of all are threatened, for we are the GUARDIANS of NATURE.

Without forest, without water, without rivers, there is no life, there is no way for any Brazilian to survive.

We resisted 518 years ago, we fight in victory and defeat, our land is our mother.

As long as the sun still shines, and while there is still fresh air under the shade of a tree, while there is still a river to bathe in, we will FIGHT.”





























































You can’t wake a person who is pretending to be asleep. – Navajo


You can’t wake a person who is pretending to be asleep. – Navajo

Early history

A 19th-century hogan

Navajos spinning and weaving

The Navajo are speakers of a Na-Dené Southern Athabaskan language they call Diné bizaad (lit. ‘People’s language’). The language comprises two geographic, mutually intelligible dialects. The Apache language is closely related to the Navajo language; the Navajo and Apache are believed to have migrated from northwestern Canada and eastern Alaska, where the majority of Athabaskan speakers reside.[4] Speakers of various other Athabaskan languages located in Canada may still comprehend the Navajo language despite the geographic and linguistic deviation of the languages.[5] Additionally, some Navajo speak Navajo Sign Language, which is either a dialect or daughter of Plains Sign Talk. Some also speak Plains Sign Talk itself.[6]

Archaeological and historical evidence suggests the Athabaskan ancestors of the Navajo and Apache entered the Southwest around 1400 CE.[7][8] The Navajo oral tradition is said[by whom?] to retain references to this migration.[citation needed]

Until contact with the Pueblo and the Spanish peoples, the Navajo were largely hunters and gatherers. The tribe adopted crop-farming techniques from the Pueblo peoples, growing mainly the traditional “Three Sisters” of corn, beans, and squash. After the Spanish colonists influenced the people, the Navajo began keeping and herding livestock—sheep and goats—as a main source of trade and food. Meat became an essential component of the Navajo diet. Sheep also became a form of currency and status symbols among the Navajo based on the overall quantity of herds a family maintained.[9][10] In addition, women began to spin and weave wool into blankets and clothing; they created items of highly valued artistic expression, which were also traded and sold.

Oral history indicates a long relationship with Pueblo people[11] and a willingness to incorporate Puebloan ideas and linguistic variance into their culture. There were long-established trading practices between the groups. Spanish records from the mid-16th century recount the Pueblo exchanging maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat, hides, and stone from Athabaskans traveling to the pueblos or living in their vicinity. In the 18th century, the Spanish reported the Navajo maintaining large herds of livestock and cultivating large crop areas.[citation needed]

Western historians believe that the Spanish before 1600 referred to the Navajo as Apaches (from the Zuni word for “enemy”) or Quechos.[12]:2–4 Fray Geronimo de Zarate-Salmeron, who was in Jemez in 1622, used Apachu de Nabajo in the 1620s to refer to the people in the Chama Valley region, east of the San Juan River and northwest of present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico. Navahu comes from the Tewa language, meaning a large area of cultivated lands.[12]:7–8 By the 1640s, the Spanish began using the term Navajo to refer to the Diné.

During the 1670s, the Spanish wrote that the Diné lived in a region known as Dinétah, about sixty miles (100 km) west of the Rio Chama valley region. In the 1770s, the Spanish sent military expeditions against the Navajo in the Mount Taylor and Chuska Mountain regions of New Mexico.[12]:43–50 The Spanish, Navajo and Hopi continued to trade with each other and formed a loose alliance to fight Apache and Commanche bands for the next twenty years. During this time there were relatively minor raids by Navajo bands and Spanish citizens against each other.

In 1800 Governor Chacon led 500 men in an expedition to the Tunicha Mountains against the Navajo. Twenty Navajo chiefs asked for peace. In 1804 and 1805 the Navajo and Spanish mounted major expeditions against each other’s settlements. In May 1805 another peace was established. Similar patterns of peace-making, raiding, and trading among the Navajo, Spanish, Apache, Comanche, and Hopi continued until the arrival of Americans in 1846.[12]

Read More HERE

Life is not separate from death. It only looks that way. – Blackfoot


Blackfoot Indian Facts

Blackfoot Indian Chief
Blackfoot Chief Crowfoot


The Blackfoot, who are also called Blackfeet, Indians were originally a nomadic American Indian tribe that migrated from the Great Lakes region to the Northwestern United States. They lived in the Northern Great Plains, specifically in Montana and Idaho as well as Alberta Canada. What started out as one nation, evolved over time into four distinct and independent tribes, each with their own government. Because of similar geographic regions how they live, including clothing style, weapons, and food is very similar. Currently, there is one Blackfoot reservation with a population of about 10,000 Indians in the U.S. and another 15,000 live in Canada. Below we have listed interesting facts and information about these Great Plains Indians.

Blackfoot Tribes

  • Blackfoot/Siksika
  • Blood/Kainai
  • Pikuni/Peigan
  • North Peigan Pikuni

General Blackfoot Indian Facts

  • The Blackfoot Indians were skilled huntsmen. They primarily hunted buffalo like many other Plains Indians and traveled in groups, when hunting, to cover as much territory as possible.
  • In the 1800’s, the white men began hunting buffalo as well and caused the population to decrease drastically. Over 600 Blackfoot Indians starved to death as a consequence of their dependence on the almost extinct buffalo.
  • Each of the four tribes, although independent, share one official language called Algonquian. This language is also spoken by many other Indian tribes in the U.S.
  • The Europeans arrival in the 1800’s meant big changes for the Blackfoot. On one hand, they brought horses with them which were invaluable to the Blackfoot because it enabled them to hunt buffalo much easier than on foot or by dog sled. But, they also brought disease that was devastating to the Blackfoot population. The Europeans passed on small pox and measles to the Indians and wiped out a significant percent of the population.
  • The Blackfoot Indians are very spiritual and believe strongly in supernatural powers. They believe that everything has a spirit, whether alive or inanimate and can be good or evil.
  • The Blackfoots most important spiritual ceremony is the Sun Dance. It’s a yearly event that takes place during the summer. It was also known as the Medicine Lodge Ceremony. It centers around dancing, singing, prayer and fasting, with the buffalo being the highlight of the ceremony. Because they relied on buffalo so much, the ceremony was a way to honor the buffalo.
  • The Blackfeet were known for mastering several forms of art including embroidery, basket making and beading. Not only did art decorate their clothing, but it could also be seen on their colorful teepees and different types of everyday tools.
  • The type of jewelry that women wore most often was earrings. They were usually made of seashell or semi-precious metals. Elk tusks were a prized possession and women wore them as decorations on their dresses. Men who achieved a certain level of status in a tribe would wear a grizzly bear paw on a necklace.
  • Clothing almost always included some part of animal hide or skin. Temperatures in the northern region got cold and the hide provided warmth.
  • War clothing was elaborate. Porcupine quills were often woven into the clothing and it was often decorated with beadwork and fringe as a status symbol.
  • The Blackfoot population was known for being difficult to get along with. They fought with those living in close proximity to them including the Assiniboine, Cree, Crows, Flatheads, Kutenai, and the Sioux.
Famous Blackfoot People
  • Crowfoot, a famous Blackfoot Indian Chief and warrior, was responsible for signing a peace treaty with the Canadian government. Of the many battles he fought, he felt that the toughest battle was one he fought (and could not win) against alcoholism among his people.
  • Kalani Queypo is a well-known actor with a Blackfoot heritage. He can be seen in movies such as The Royal Tenenbaums and The Juror.


Day and night cannot dwell together. – Duwamish


Day and night cannot dwell together. – Duwamish

History of the Duwamish Tribe

The region now known as Seattle has been inhabited since the end of the last glacial period (c. 8,000 BCE.: 10,000 years ago). Archaeological excavations at West Point in Discovery Park, Magnolia confirm that the Seattle area has been inhabited by humans for at least 4,000 years and probably much longer.[1] West Point was called Oka-dz-elt-cu, Per-co-dus-chule, or Pka-dzEltcu. The village of tohl-AHL-too (“herring house”) had been inhabited at least since the 6th century CE, as had hah-AH-poos—”where there are horse clams“—at the then-mouth of the Duwamish River in what is now the Industrial District.[2] The Lushootseed (Skagit-Nisqually)-speaking Salish Dkhw‘Duw’Absh (“People of the Inside”) and Xacuabš (“People of the Large Lake”)—ancestors of today’s Duwamish Tribe—occupied at least 17 villages in the mid-1850s and lived in some 93 permanent longhouses (khwaac’ál’al) along the lower Duwamish River, Elliott Bay, Salmon Bay, Portage Bay, Lake Washington, Lake Sammamish, and the Duwamish River tributaries, the Black and Cedar Rivers.[3]

Tens of people lived in each longhouse; forerunners of cohousing, they were cooperatives of extended families that were quite unlike the single or single family cabins of White American settlements.[4] The villages were traditionally larger than they might have first appeared to White settlers, since Coast Salish people had, in recent decades before extensive White settlement (c. 1774–1864), experienced some 62% losses due to introduced diseases. For comparison, the catastrophic Spanish flu Pandemic of 1918–19 took an estimated 2.5%–5% mortality worldwide; about 28% of the U.S. population contracted the Spanish flu.[5]

Like many Northwest Coast natives, the Dkhw‘Duw’Absh and Xacuabš relied heavily on fishing for their well-being and their livelihood: the Pacific Northwest fisheries were once one of the richest in the world, second only to the Grand Banks. Remnants of Dkhw‘Duw’Absh fishing gear were found near the abundant tide pools of sbuh-KWAH-buks (“shaped like a bear’s head”, the West Seattle peninsula). The site is in what is now called Me-Kwa-Mooks Park, where dense trees provide habitat for many birds including screech owls.[citation needed][6] Me-Kwa-Mooks Park is about 1 mi. (1.6 km) west of Camp Long in the south of the Alki neighborhood of West Seattle, (map [1]).[7] Up the hill, a 50-acre (20 hectare) stand of massive, old-growth Douglas fir and western red cedar—many towering more than 200 feet (61 m), their roots carpeted by sword ferns and salal—survived the clear cutting of Seattle. The fragment of forest in Schmitz Park (1908–1912) is a living reminder of what much of Seattle looked like before the City of Seattle.[8]

From the 1800s the Maritime Fur Trade opened access to European goods for rival northern tribes from Vancouver Island and the Georgia Strait). Having guns prompted their more effective raiding south, deep into recently named Puget Sound, in turn prompting social and organizational change. The Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) established Fort Langley (1827), then Fort Nisqually (1833) near present-day Dupont, within easy range and prompting keen interest in trade. As a young man, Si’ahl (later called Chief Seattle) made himself both well-known and notorious around Fort Nisqually. Catholic missionaries began arriving in 1839, settlers in earnest from 1845. In 19th century maneuvering with European Great Powers, the United States assumed regional sovereignty in 1846.[9] White settlements at sbuh-KWAH-buks (Alki) and what is now Pioneer Square in Downtown Seattle were established in 1851 and 1852. The latter settlement was right upon and between prominent villages on Elliott Bay and villages on the Duwamish River estuary.[10]



Princess Angelina

The Cutest Pit Bull in the World needs Your Help to Save Other Dogs.

Our Compass

Because compassion directs us ...


"Only after the last tree has been cut down, only after the last river has been poisoned, Only after the last fish has been caught, only then will you find that money can not be eaten."